"THE SLAVE ASSEMBLE IN THE SWAMPS"
Peter Randolph, who grew up in slavery on a plantation in Prince George
County, Virginia, received his freedom in 1847 following his owner's death,
and then served as an antislavery agent, a newspaper editor, and as a Baptist
minister in the North and in Canada. Following the Civil War, he served as
minister in the Ryland or Old African Baptist Church in Richmond, Virginia.
This selection describes the disparity between the version of Christianity
that masters taught to the slaves and the version that slaves taught to
Many say the Negroes receive religious education-
Sabbath worship is instituted for them as for others, and were it not for
slavery, they would die in their sins-
really, the institution of slavery is a benevolent missionary enterprise.
Yes, they are preached to, and I will give my readers some faint glimpses of
these preachers, and their doctrines and practices.
In Prince George County there were two meeting-
intended for public worship. Both were occupied by the Baptist denomination.
These houses were built by William and George Harrison, brothers...that their
slaves might go there on the Sabbath and receive instruction, such as slave-
ministers would give. The prominent preaching to the slaves was, "'Servants,
obey your masters'. Do not steal or lie, for this is very wrong. Such conduct
is sinning against the Holy Ghost, and is base ingratitude to your kind
masters, who feed, clothe and protect you...." I should think, when making
such statements, the slaveholders would feel the rebuke of the Apostle and
fall down and be carried out from the face of day, as were Ananias and
Sapphira, when they betrayed the trust committed to them, or refused to bear
true testimony in regard to that trust.
There was another church, about fourteen miles from the one just
mentioned. It was called "Brandon's church", and there the white Baptists
There was one Brother Shell who used to preach. One Sabbath, while
exhorting the poor, impenitent, hard-
ungrateful slaves, so much beloved by their masters, to repentance and
prayerfulness, while entreating them to lead good lives, that they might
escape the wrath (of the lash) to come, some of his crocodile tears overflowed
his cheek....But, my readers, Monday morning, Brother Shell was afflicted with
his old malady, hardness of heart, so that he was obliged to catch one of the
sisters by the throat, and give her a terrible flogging.
The like of this is the preaching, and these are the men that spread the
Gospel among the slaves. Ah! such a Gospel had better be buried in oblivion,
for it makes more heathens than Christians. Such preachers ought to be
forbidden by the laws of the land ever to mock again at the blessed religion
of Jesus, which was sent as a light to the world....
Not being allowed to hold meetings on the plantation, the slaves assemble
in the swamps, out of reach of the patrols. They have an understanding among
themselves as to the time and place of getting together. This is often done
by the first one arriving breaking boughs form the trees, and bending them in
the direction of the selected spot. Arrangements are then made for conducting
the exercises. They first ask each other how they feel, the state of their
minds, etc. The male members then select a certain space, in separate groups,
for their division of the meeting. Preaching in order, by the brethren; then
praying and singing all round, until they generally feel quite happy. The
speaker usually commences by calling himself unworthy, and talks very slowly,
until, feeling the spirit, he grows excited, and in a short time, there fall
to the ground twenty or thirty men and women under its influence. Enlightened
people call it excitement; but I wish the same was felt by everybody, so far
as they are sincere.
The slave forgets all his sufferings, except to remind others of the
trials during the past week, exclaiming: "Thank God, I shall not live here
always!" Then they pass from one to another, shaking hands, and bidding each
other farewell, promising, should they meet no more on earth, to strive and
meet in heaven, where all is joy, happiness and liberty. As they separate,
they sing a parting hymn of praise.
Sometimes the slaves meet in an old log-
when they find it necessary to keep a watch. If discovered, they escape, if
possible; but those who are caught often get whipped. Some are willing to be
punished thus for Jesus' sake. Most of the songs used in worship are composed
by the slaves themselves, and describe their own sufferings. Thus:
"Oh, that I had a bosom friend, To tell my secrets to,
One always to depend upon In everything I do!"
"How do I wander, up and down!
I seem a stranger, quite undone;
None to lend an ear to my complaint,
No one to cheer me, though I faint."
Some of the slaves sing-
"No more rain, no more snow,
No more cowskin on my back!"
Then they change it by singing-
"Glory be to God that rules on high."
In some places, if the slaves are caught praying to God, they are whipped
more than if they had committed a great crime. The slaveholders will allow
the slaves to dance, but do not want them to pray to God. Sometimes, when a
slave, on being whipped, calls upon God, he is forbidden to do so, under
threat of having his throat cut, or brains blown out. Oh, reader! this seems
slaves cannot call on their Maker, when the case most needs it. Sometimes the
poor slave takes courage to ask his master to let him pray, and is driven
away, with the answer, that if discovered praying, his back will pay the bill.
Source: Peter Randolph, Slave Cabin to the Pulpit (Boston, 1893).