WILLIAM WELLS BROWN
"I WAS TIED UP IN THE SMOKEHOUSE"
One of the nation's first black novelists and historians, William Wells Brown
was born in Lexington Kentucky in 1816 and raised in Missouri. After serving
as a slave driver, he was hired out to transport slaves to the New Orleans
slave market, but managed to escape. Here, he describes the punishments he
encountered while he was a slave in Missouri.
My mother was hired out in the city, and I was also hired out there to
Major Freeland, who kept a public house. He was formerly from Virginia, and
was a horse-
gambler, and withal an inveterate drunkard. There were ten or twelve servants
in the house, and when he was present,it was cut and slash-
down and drag out. In his fits of anger, he would take up a chair, and throw
it at a servant; and in his more rational moments, when he wished to chastise
one, he would tie them up in the smokehouse, and whip them; after which, he
would cause a fire to be made of tobacco stems, and smoke them. This he
called "Virginia play."
I complained to my master of the treatment which I received from Major
Freeland; but it made no difference. He cared nothing about it, so long as he
received the money for my labor. After living with Major Freeland five or six
months, I ran away, and went into the woods back of the city; and when night
came on, I made my way to my master's farm, knowing that if Mr. Haskell, the
overseer, should discover me, I should be again carried back to Major
Freeland; so I kept in the woods. One day, while in the woods, I heard the
barking and howling of dogs, and in a short time they came so near that I knew
them to be the bloodhounds of Major Benjamin O'Fallon. He kept five or six,
to hunt runaway slaves with.
As soon as I was convinced that it was them, I knew there was no chance
of escape. I took refuge in the top of a tree and the hounds were soon at its
base, and there remained until the hunters came up in a half or three quarters
of an hour afterwards. There were two men with the dogs, who, as soon as they
came up, ordered me to descend. I came down, was tied, and taken to St. Louis
jail. Major Freeland soon made his appearance, and took me out, and ordered
me to follow him, which I did. After we returned home I was tied up in the
smokehouse, and was very severely whipped. After the major had flogged me to
his satisfaction, he sent out his son Robert, a young man eighteen or twenty
years of age, to see that I was well smoked. He made a fire of tobacco stems,
which soon set me to coughing and sneezing. This, Robert told me, was the way
his father used to do to his slaves in Virginia. After giving me what they
conceived to be a decent smoking, I was untied and again set to work.
Source: Narrative of William W. Brown, A Fugitive Slave (Boston, 1847).