"THE LAST SHOULD BE FIRST"
In response to questions from a white lawyer named Thomas R. Gray, Nat Turner
explains why he led his revolt against slavery.
have asked me to give a history of the motives which induced me to undertake
the late insurrection, as you call it-
do so I must go back to the days of my infancy....In my childhood a
circumstance occurred which made an indelible impression on my mind, and laid
the groundwork of that enthusiasm, which has terminated so fatally to many,
both white and black, and for which I am about to atone at the
gallows....Being at play with other children, when three or four years old, I
was telling them something, which my mother overhearing, said it had happened
before I was born...others being called on were greatly astonished...and
caused them to say in my hearing, I surely would be a prophet....
For two years [I] prayed continually, whenever my duty would permit-
and then again I had [a]...revelation, which fully confirmed me in the
impression that I was ordained for some great purpose, in the hands of the
About this time [around 1825] I had a vision-
I saw white spirits and black spirits engaged in battle, and the sun was
thunder rolled in the Heavens, and blood flowed in streams....
And on the 12th of May, 1828, I heard a loud noise in the heavens, and
the Spirit instantly appeared to me and said the Serpent was loosened, and
Christ had laid down the yoke he had borne for the sins of men, and that I
should take it on and fight against the Serpent, for the time was fast
approaching when the first should be last and the last should be first.
[Question] Do you not find yourself mistaken now?
[Answer] Was not Christ crucified? And by signs in the heavens that it would
be made known to me when I should commence the great work-
until the first sign appeared, I should conceal if from the knowledge of men-
on the appearance of the sign (the eclipse of the sun last February), I
should arise and prepare myself, and slay my enemies with their own weapons.
And immediately on the sign appearing in the heavens, the seal was removed
from my lips, and I communicated the great work laid out before me to do, to
four in whom I had the greatest confidence (Henry, Hark, Nelson, and Sam)-
was intended by us to have begun the work of death on the 4th of July last-
were the plans formed and rejected by us, and it affected my mind to such a
degree, that I fell sick, and the time passed without our coming to any
determination how to commence-
forming new schemes and rejecting them, when the sign appeared again, which
determined me not to wait longer.
Since the commencement of 1830, I had been living with Mr. Joseph Travis,
who was to me a kind master, and placed the greatest confidence in me: in
fact, I had no cause to complain of his treatment of me. On Saturday evening,
the 20th of August, it was agreed between Henry, Hark, and myself, to prepare
a dinner the next day for the men we expected, and then to concert a plan, as
we had not yet determined on any. Hark, on the following morning, brought a
pig, and Henry brandy, and being joined by Sam, Nelson, Will and Jack, they
prepared in the woods a dinner, where, about three o'clock, I joined them....
I saluted them on coming up, and asked Will how came he there, he
answered, his life was worth no more than others, and his liberty as dear to
him. I asked him if he thought to obtain it? He said he would, or lose his
life. This was enough to put him in full confidence. Jack, I knew, was only
a tool in the hands of Hark, it was quickly agreed we should commence at home
(Mr. J. Travis') on that night, and until we had armed and equipped ourselves,
and gathered sufficient force, neither age nor sex was to be spared (which was
invariably adhered to). We remained at the feast, until about two hours in
the night, when we went to the house and found Austin; they all went to the
cider press and drank, except myself. On returning to the house Hark went to
the door with an axe, for the purpose of breaking it open, as we knew we were
strong enough to murder the family, if they were awakened by the noise; but
reflecting that it might create an alarm in the neighborhood, we determined to
enter the house secretly, and murder them whilst sleeping. hark got a ladder
and set it against the chimney, on which I ascended, and hoisting a window,
entered and came down stairs, unbarred the door, and removed the guns from
their places. It was then observed that I must spill the first blood. On
which, armed with a hatchet, and accompanied by Will, I entered my master's
chamber, it being dark, I could not give a death blow, the hatchet glanced
from his head, he sprang from the bed and called his wife, it was his last
word, Will laid him dead, with a blow of his axe, and Mrs. Travis shared the
same fate, as she lay in bed. The murder of this family, five in number, was
the work of a moment, not one of them awoke; there was a little infant
sleeping in a cradle, that was forgotten, until we had left the house and gone
some distance, when Henry and will returned and killed it; we got here, four
guns that would shoot and several old muskets, with a pound or two of powder.
We remained some time at the barn, where we paraded; I formed them in a line
as soldiers, and...marched them off to Mr. Salthul Francis', about six hundred
yards distant. Sam and Will went to the door and knocked. Mr. Francis asked
who was there, Sam replied it was him, and he had a letter for him, on which
he got up and came to the door; they immediately seized him, and dragging him
out a little from the door, he was dispatched by repeated blows on the head;
there was no other white person in the family. We started from there for Mrs.
Reese's, maintaining the most perfect silence on our march, where finding the
door unlocked, we entered, and murdered Mrs. Reese in her bed, while sleeping;
her son awoke, but it was only to sleep the sleep of death, he had only time
to say who is that, and he was no more. From Mrs. Reese's we went to Mrs.
Turner's, a mile distant, which we reached about sunrise, on Monday morning.
Henry, Austin, and Sam, went to the still, where, finding Mr. Peebles, Austin
shot him, and the rest of us went to the house; as we approached, the family
discovered us, and shut the door. Vain hope! Will, with one stroke of his
axe opened it, and we entered and found Mrs. Turner and Mrs. Newsome in the
middle of a room, almost frightened to death. Will immediately killed Mrs.
Turner, with one blow of his axe. I took Mrs. Newsome by the hand, and with
the sword I had when I was apprehended, I struck her several blows over the
head, but not being able to kill her, as the sword was dull. Will turning
around and discovering it, dispatched her also. A general destruction of
property and search for money and ammunition, always succeeded the murders.
By this time my company amounted to fifteen, and nine men mounted, who started
for Mrs. Whitehead's....As we approached the house we discovered Mr. Richard
Whitehead standing in the cotton patch, near the lane fence; we called him
over into the lane, and Will, the executioner, was near at hand, with his
fatal axe, to send him to an untimely grave....As I came around to the door I
saw Will pulling Mrs. Whitehead out of the house, and at the step he nearly
severed her head from her body, with his broad axe. Miss Margaret, when I
discovered her, had concealed herself in the corner...on my approach she fled,
but was soon overtaken, and after repeated blows with a sword, I killed her by
a blow on the head, with a fence rail....
...'Twas my object to carry terror and devastation wherever we went....I
sometimes got in sight in time to see the work of death completed, viewed the
mangled bodies as they lay, in silent satisfaction, and immediately started in
quest of other victims-
murdered Mrs. Waller and ten children, we started for Mr. William Williams'-
killed him and two little boys that were there; while engaged in this, Mrs.
Williams fled and got some distance from the house, but she was pursued,
overtaken, and compelled to get up behind one of the company, who brought her
back, and after showing her the mangled body of her lifeless husband, she was
told to get down an lay by his side, where she was shot dead....
Our number amounted now to fifty or sixty, all mounted and armed with
guns, axes, swords, and clubs....We were met by a party of white men, who had
pursued our blood-
track....The white men, eighteen in number, approached us in about one hundred
yards, when one of them fired....I then ordered my men to fire and rush them;
the few remaining stood their ground until we approached within fifty yards,
when they fired and retreated....As I saw them re-
their guns, and more coming up than I saw at first, and several of my bravest
men being wounded, the other became panick struck and squandered over the
field; the white men pursued and fired on us several times....
All deserted me but two, (Jacob and Nat,) we concealed ourselves in the
woods until near night, when I sent them in search of Henry, Sam, Nelson, and
Hark, and directed them to rally all they could, at the place where had had
our dinner the Sunday before, where they would find me, and I accordingly
returned there as soon as it was dark and remained until Wednesday evening,
when discovering white men riding around the place as though they were looking
for someone, and none of my men joining me, I concluded Jacob and Nat had been
taken, and compelled to betray me. On this I gave up all hope for the
present; and on Thursday night after having supplied myself with provisions
from Mr. Travis' I scratched a hope under a pile of fence rails in a field,
where I concealed myself for six weeks, never leaving my hiding place but for
a few minutes in the dead of night to get water which was very near....I know
not how long I might have led this life, if accident had not betrayed me, a
dog in the neighborhood passing by my hiding place one night while I was out,
was attracted by some meat I had in my cave, and crawled in and stole it, and
was coming out just as I returned. A few nights after, two Negroes having
started to go hunting with the same dog, and passed that way, the dog came
again to the place, and having just gone out to walk about, discovered me and
barked, on which thinking myself discovered, I spoke to them to beg
concealment. On making myself known they fled from me. Knowing when they
would betray me, I immediately left my hiding place, and was pursued almost
incessantly until I was taken a fortnight afterwards by Mr. Benjamin Phipps,
in a little hole I had dug out with my sword, for the purpose of concealment,
under the top of a fallen tree.
Source: The Confessions of Nat Turner, the Leader of the Late Insurrection
in Southampton, Va. (Baltimore, 1831).